Ferrous Metals

Material nameCompositionPropertiesApplications
Low Carbon SteelsUp to 0.30% CarbonGood formability, good weld-ability,    low cost0.1% - 0.2% carbon: Chains, stampings,    rivets, nails, wire, pipe, and where very soft, plastic steel is needed.
     0.2% - 0.3% carbon: Machine and structural parts
Medium Carbon Steels0.30% to 0.80% CarbonA good balance of properties, fair    formability0.3% - 0.4% carbon: Lead screws, gears,    worms, spindles, shafts, and machine parts.
       0.4% - 0.5% carbon: Crankshafts, gears, axles, mandrels, tool shanks, and    heat-treated machine parts
       0.6% - 0.8% carbon: "Low carbon tool    steel" and is used where shock strength is wanted. Drop hammer dies,    set screws, screwdrivers, and arbors.
     0.7% - 0.8% carbon: Tough and hard steel. Anvil faces, band saws, hammers,    wrenches, and cable wire.
High Carbon Steels0.80% to ~2.0% CarbonLow toughness, formability, and    weld-ability, high hardness and wear resistance, fair formability0.8% - 0.9% carbon: Punches for metal,    rock drills, shear blades, cold chisels, rivet sets, and many hand tools.
       0.9% - 1.0% carbon: Used for hardness and high tensile strength, springs,    cutting tools
       1.0% - 1.2% carbon: Drills, taps, milling cutters, knives, cold cutting dies,    wood working tools.
       1.2% - 1.3% carbon: Files, reamers, knives, tools for cutting wood and brass.
     1.3% - 1.4% carbon: Used where a keen cutting edge is   necessary (razors, saws, etc.) and where wear resistance is important.
Stainless SteelStainless steel is a family of corrosion resistant   steels. They   contain at least 10.5% chromium, with or without other   elements. The   Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective   clear oxide layer.   This oxide layer gives stainless steels their   corrosion resistance.Good corrosion resistance,    appearance, and mechanical properties 
Austenitic Steels: Contains chromium and   nickel. The typical   chromium content is in the range of 16% to 26%;   nickel content is   commonly less than 35%.Good mechanical and corrosion resisting properties,   high hardness and   yield strength as well as excellent ductility and   are usually   non-magneticKitchen sinks, architectural applications such as   roofing, cladding,   gutters, doors and windows; Food processing   equipment; Heat exchangers;   Ovens; Chemical tanks
Ferritic Steels: Magnetic with a high chromium and low nickel content usually alloyed    with other elements such as aluminum or titanium.Good ductility, weld-ability, and formability;   reasonable thermal   conductivity, and corrosion resistance with a good   bright surface   appearanceAutomotive trim, catalytic converters, radiator caps,   fuel lines,   cooking utensils, architectural and domestic appliance   trim applications
Martensitic Steels: Typically contains 11.0%   to 17.0%   chromium, no nickel, and 0.10% to 0.65% carbon levels. The   high carbon   enables the material to be hardened by heating to a high   temperature,   followed by rapid cooling (quenching).Good combination of corrosion resistance and   excellent mechanical   properties, produced by heat treatment, to   develop maximum hardness,   strength, and resistance to abrasion and   erosion.Cutlery, scissors, surgical instruments, wear plates,   garbage   disposal shredder lugs, industrial knives, vanes for steam   turbines,   fasteners, shafts, and springs